Transcription

Page 1

MANDEN, DER BLEV KVINDE

Professor von WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948 fortæller
Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 til ved et i Lægevidenskabens Annaler enestaaende Indgreb

(01) DEN tilsyneladende ganske utrolige Historie om Maleren Einar WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931s fysiologiske Forvandling til kvinde efter en Operation optager i Dag alle Sind. Almindelige Mennesker, som ikke har lægevidenskabelige Forudsætninger, staar fuldkommen uforstaaende over for Fænomenet og spørger med Undren: Er det virkelig muligt, at noget saadant kan finde Sted?

(02) For at faa Spørgsmaalet belyst fra virkelig Avtoritativ Side, har vi valgt at henvende os til den Mand, som til syvende og sidst er den eneste, der i denne sag kan udtale sig med nogen Vægt – nemlig den Læge, der har foretaget Operationen, den berømte tyske Gynækolog, Professor Kurt v. WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948.

Professor v. WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948 fortæller.

(03) Professor v. WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948 er Leder af “Staatliche Frauenklinik” i DresdenDresden (historical), city in Germany, og da vi ringer op til Kliniken, faar vi straks Professoren i Tale. Vi beder ham fortælle, hvad han mener sig i Stand til, om det mærkelige tilfælde.

(04) — Det skal jeg gerne gøre, svarer Professoren med største Beredvillighed – saa meget mere, som Tilfældet er ganske enestaaende og vistnok uden Sidestykke i Lægevidenskabens Annaler. Mit Bekendtskab med den Kvinde, der nu er Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931, men som tidligere var Maleren Einar WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931, stammer fra Paris, hvor jeg i sin Tid lærte hende at kende. Man havde fortalt mig om hendes sjælelige Lidelser, og hun var paa dette Tidspunkt saa langt ude i Depressionen, at hun truede med at berøve sig Livet, fordi hun ikke kunde finde sig tilrette i Tilværelsen.

(05) Fremragende franske Læger, som hun havde henvendt sig til, havde ikke kunnet yde hende nogen Hjælp – de stod paa det Standpunkt, at der ikke var noget at gøre – hun maatte finde sig i sin Skæbne … Hendes Familie og venner bad mig indtrængende om i hvert Fald at foretage en Undersøgelse, og da jeg havde den største Medlidenhed med det ulykkelige Menneske, bøjede jeg mig for deres Ønske.

(06) Jeg fandt da til min overraskelse, at skønt hun i det Ydre havde udpræget mandlige Træk, var disse Træk kun af sekundær natur – i Virkeligheden var hendes Anatomi en Kvindes. Der kunde
Maleren Einar
                                        Wegener
Maleren Einar WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931

ikke for Fagmanden være mindste Tvivl om, at Naturen her havde ville skabe en Kvinde, men at der ved et eller andet ulykkeligt Tilfælde var kommet Kludder i Værket. Da jeg var kommet saa vidt, forstod jeg, at det ved et operativt Indgreb maatte være muligt at befri denne stakkels Kvinde for hendes aarelange Lidelser og give hende tilbage til livet som et nyt Menneske. Jeg forstod ogssa, hvilken Risiko der var forbundet med et saadant Eksperiment – thi et Eksperiment var det i Virkeligheden for mig, da jeg stod ganske uden Fortilfælde af denne Art – men jeg mente, at Chancen var større end Risikoen, og jeg tog Ansvaret paa mig.

(07) Nu bagefter er jeg stolt og glad over at kunne sige, at Eksperimentet lykkedes over al Forventning.…

Da Kvindeligheden vaagnede –

(08) – De foretog Operationen paa Deres Klinik i Dresden?Dresden (historical), city in Germany

(09) – Ja, hun indvilgede i at komme til mig og underkaste sig min Behandling. Det var en meget omfattende og vanskelig Operation, og den var ikke helt ufarlig for Patienten. Om dens Enkeltheder kan jeg naturligvis ikke udtale mig … jeg maa nøjes med at sige, at det lykkedes mig at fjerne de Træk af mandlig Natur, der fandtes hos den ulykkelige Kvinde, og i Stedet indpode hende visse elementære kvindelige Organer, som hun manglede.

(10) Og da Operationen var lykkeligt over-

(Fortsættes Side 9)


                            LILI ELBE Vi bringer her
                                i Tilslutning til Artiklen, nogle fotografier af Lili Elbe, taget efter den lykkeligt
                                overstaaede Operation. De to første Billeder viser Lili Elbe i Klinikens Have i Dresden. Det tredje er taget under et
                                Rekreationsophold i Erzgebirge, og det fjerde stammer fra et besøg i
                                Barndomsbyen Vejle for ganske
                                kort tid siden.
LILI ELBELili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 Vi bringer her i Tilslutning til Artiklen, nogle fotografier af Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931, taget efter den lykkeligt overstaaede Operation. De to første Billeder viser Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 i KlinikensMunicipal Women’s Clinic (fictional), modeled on Staatliche Frauenklinik in Dresden, directed by Professor Kurt Warnekros at the time Have i DresdenDresden (historical), city in Germany. Det tredje er taget under et Rekreationsophold i ErzgebirgeErzgebirge (historical), mountain range in eastern Germany, og det fjerde stammer fra et besøg i Barndomsbyen VejleVejle (historical), Einar Wegener’s birthplace in the Jutland region of Denmark for ganske kort tid siden.

MANDEN, DER BLEV KVINDE
(Fortsat fra Side 1).

Prof. Kurt v
                                    Warnekros. Malt af Gerda Wegener.
Prof. Kurt v WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948. Malt af Gerda WegenerGerda Maria Frederikke Gottlieb Wegener (1885-1940), an art deco painter and illustrator; married to Einar Wegener.


[Page 2]
staaet, skete det mærkelige og vidunderlige, at hendes slumrende Kvindelighed pludselig vaagnede og begyndte at udfolde sig, saavel sjæleligt som legemligt. Hun var nu en fuldt normal Kvinde, og mens Livet tidligere var hende en Lidelse, har hun allerede fundet sin Sindsro og Sjælsligevægt igen. Alting tyder paa, at hun har mange gode og lyse Aar foran sig … og naar Forholdene ligger saaledes, maa man da ikke sige, at dette egenmægtige Indgreb i Naturens Orden – eller om de vil, Uorden – har været fuldt forsvarligt?

(11) – Er Operationen gennemført i en saadan Udstrækning, at den paagældende Kvinde f. Eks. ogsaa vil kunne gifte sig med en mand, hvis hun føler Trang dertil?

(12) – Ja, teoretisk set er der intet i vejen herfor. Og i hvert Fald vil man ved en fornyet Operation nemt kunne fjerne de Hindringer, som eventuelt endnu maatte stille sig i Vejen. Men barnløst vil et saadant Ægteskab under alle Omstændigheder blive … det er den eneste Vanskelighed, som Lægevidenskaben ikke formaar at overvinde – – ellers er intet umuligt!

(13) Dr. Rank.

Hvad Juraen siger. Hvordan man stiller sig i Tilfælde af Kønsskifte.

(14) Vi har henvendt os til en fremragende Jurist her i Byen og spurgt ham, hvorledes Juraen og de verdslige Øvrigheder stiller sig i Tilfælde som det, der er overgaaet fhv. Maler Einer WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931, nuværende Fru Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931?

(15) – Der findes ikke nogen Bestemmelse i dansk Ret om dette Forhold. Ægteskabsloven har en Regel om Ægteskabers Omstødelse, hvis Ægtefællerne f. Eks. har været for nær beslægtede – men denne Regel gælder jo ikke i et Tilfælde som Lili ElbesLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931. Saa har Loven desuden en Regel om, at et Ægteskab kan omstødes, naar Folk er uegnede til samliv (Impotens), men i saa Tilfælde skal der meget hurtigt indgives Skilsmissebegæring. – Det vil være urigtigt at bringe Lovens Skilsmisseregler i Anvendelse – og den eneste rigtige Løsning vil være simpelthen at betragte Ægteskabet som ikke eksisterende, idet det jo er Lovens forudsætning, at Ægteskaber indgaas mellem Personer af forskelligt Køn. Hvis der foreligger en Domsafgørelse i dette Tilfælde, kan det kun skyldes, at man har ønsket en retslig Konstatering af, at Forudsætningen for, at der overhovedet Kunde være Tale om et Ægteskab, mangler.

(16) Det er her i landet sket i adskillige Tilfælde, at Personer har skiftet Køn. Der var saa langt tilbage som i 1820 et Tilfælde, hvor Kongen tillod, at Johanne Katrine Nielsdatter af Hørby Sogn efter Indberetning fra Sundhedskollegiet betragtedes som Mand, tog navnet Johannes og fritoges for Krigstjenesten. – Senere har der være f. Eks. en Sag fra et herværende Børnehjem, hvor det viste sig, at Forstanderinden i Virkeligheden var en mand – han levede siden som et pænt og skikkeligt Menneske her i Staden.

(17) Ofte har det vist sig meget vanskeligt at bestemme, om et Barn er dreng eller Pige. I saa fald vil Fremgangsmaaden være den, at man henvender sig til Retslægeraadet, og hvis dette kan afgive et bestemt Svar, er Sagen jo afgjort. Hvis der er Tvivl om Kønnet, Venter man til Vedkommende er en Snes Aar gammel – saa kan det som regel siges med Sikkerhed.

(18) Hvis det til den Tid konstateres, at en maaske gift person tilhører et andet køn end det, hvori vedkommende er blevet opdraget, indgives der Andragende til Ministeriet vedlagt de forskellige Bevisligheder – og den paagældende faar derefter kgl. Bevilling paa, at han eller hun anses for tilhørende det andet Køn. Samtidig faar vedkommende et nyt Navn, svarende til sit rette Køn.

(19) I Tilfælde, hvor Kønnet ikke med Sikkerhed kan konstateres, er man i vore Dage inde paa den Tankegang, at vedkommende slipper for mulige sociale Ulemper, f. Eks. fritages for krigstjeneste. Dette udrykker Professor Viggo Bentzon i sin Familieret saaledes, at vedkommende “kan ikke blive Soldat, men nok Jordemoder”.

(20) Der er intet i Vejen for, at den, der saaledes har skiftet Køn, kan indgaa nyt Ægteskab – det tidligere er jo erklæret for Nul og nix.

Translation

THE MAN WHO BECAME A WOMAN

An interview with Professor von WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948
Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 came into being by means of a procedure unique in the annals of medical science
-@Translator: MO

(01) THE seemingly quite incredible story of the painter Einar WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931’s physiological transformation into a woman after an operation occupies all minds today. Ordinary people who do not have medical qualifications are completely unable to understand the phenomenon and ask in wonderment: Is it really possible that something like that can take place?

(02) To have the question elucidated from a really authoritative side we have chosen to approach the man who is ultimately the only one who can speak with any authority in this matter – namely the doctor who performed the operation, the famous German gynaecologist Professor Kurt v. WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948.

An interview with Professor von Warnekros.Kurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948

(03) Professor v. WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948 is head of “Staatliche Frauenklinik” in DresdenDresden (historical), city in Germany, and when we call the clinic, we immediately get to speak to the professor. We ask him to tell us what he thinks himself capable of, about this strange case.

(04) – I’ll be happy to do so, the professor answers very promptly – all the more as the case is quite unique and I believe unequalled in the annals of medical science. My acquaintance with the woman who is now Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 but who was formerly the painter Einar WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931 stems from ParisParis (historical), capital of France where I got to know her some time ago. I had been told about her mental sufferings, and she was at this time so far into depression that she threatened to take her own life because she was unable to find her place in life.

(05) Excellent French doctors that she had approached had not been able to help her – they took the view that nothing could be done – she had to resign herself to her fate … Her family and friends entreated me to at least perform an examination, and as I had the greatest compassion for the unhappy person, I deferred to their wish.

(06) To my surprise I then found that although externally she had definite male traits, these traits were only of secondary nature – in reality her anatomy was that of a woman. There could

                                The painter Einer
                                        Wegener
The painter Einer WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931

not be the least doubt to the expert that nature here had wanted to create a woman but that by some unfortunate accident the work had been messed up. When I had come so far, I understood that by a surgical operation it must be possible to free this poor woman from her sufferings that had lasted for years and give her back to life as a new person. I also understood the risk connected to such an experiment – because an experiment it actually was for me as I had no precedents at all of this kind – but I thought that the chance was greater than the risk and I assumed the responsibility.

(07) Now afterwards I am proud and happy to be able to say that the experiment was a success beyond all expectations….

When Femininity awoke –

(08) – You performed the operation at your clinic in Dresden?Dresden (historical), city in Germany

(09) – Yes, she agreed to come to me and subject herself to my treatment. It was a very extensive and difficult operation, and it was not quite without risk to the patient. I cannot comment on its details of course … I have to restrict myself to saying that I succeeded in removing the traits of male nature that existed in this unfortunate woman, and instead implant in her certain elementary female organs which she lacked.

(10) And when the operation was successfully over,

(To be continued on page 9)
LILI ELBELili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931


                            In connection with the article we here provide some photographs of
                                    Lili Elbe taken after the
                                successfully completed operation. The first two pictures show
                                    Lili Elbe in the garden of the
                                    clinic in Dresden. The third one is taken during
                                a rest cure in Erzgebirge,
                                and the fourth one comes from a visit in the native town Vejle quite a short time ago.
In connection with the article we here provide some photographs of Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 taken after the successfully completed operation. The first two pictures show Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 in the garden of the clinicMunicipal Women’s Clinic (fictional), modeled on Staatliche Frauenklinik in Dresden, directed by Professor Kurt Warnekros at the time in DresdenDresden (historical), city in Germany. The third one is taken during a rest cure in ErzgebirgeErzgebirge (historical), mountain range in eastern Germany, and the fourth one comes from a visit in the native town VejleVejle (historical), Einar Wegener’s birthplace in the Jutland region of Denmark quite a short time ago.

THE MAN WHO BECAME A WOMAN
(Continued from page 1)

Professor Kurt v
                                    Warnekros. Painted by Gerda Wegener.
Professor Kurt v WarnekrosKurt Warnekros (1882–1949), a German gynecologist who performed all but the first of four surgeries on Lili Elvenes; director of the Women’s Clinic in Dresden (Staatliche Frauenklinik) from 1925 to 1948. Painted by Gerda WegenerGerda Maria Frederikke Gottlieb Wegener (1885-1940), an art deco painter and illustrator; married to Einar Wegener.

the strange and wonderful thing happened that her dormant femininity suddenly awoke and began to unfold, mentally as well as physically. She was now a completely normal woman, and while before life was painful to her, she has already found her peace of mind and mental equilibrium again. Everything indicates that she has many good and bright years ahead of her … And as things stand, can you deny that this arbitrary intervention in the natural order of things – or if you like, disorder – has been completely justifiable?

(11) – Has the operation been carried out to such an extend that the woman in question will for instance also be able to marry a man if she desires to?

(12) – Yes, theoretically nothing stands in the way of this. And at least it will be possible by a new operation to remove the obstacles that may still stand in the way. But such a marriage will necessarily be childless … that is the only difficulty that medical science is not able to overcome – – otherwise nothing is impossible!

(13) Doctor Rank.

What the Law Says. What the Line Is in Case of Sex Change.
-@Translator: MO

(14) We have approached a distinguished lawyer in this city and asked him how the law and the temporal authorities stand in cases like the one that has befallen the former painter Einar WegenerEinar Magnus Andreas Wegener (b. 1882), a Danish painter; married to Gerda Wegener; died as Lili Elbe in Dresden, 1931, the present Mrs. Lili ElbeLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931?

(15) – There is no provision in Danish law about this matter. The marriage act has a rule about the annulment of marriages if the partners for instance have been too closely related – but this rule does not apply in a case like Lili Elbe’sLili Elbe (fictional and historical), legal name Lili Ilse Elvenes; born Einar Wegener (1882), died in Dresden, 1931 of course. Besides, the law also has a rule that a marriage can be annulled when people are unfit for married life (impotence), but in that case a petition for divorce must be filed very quickly. – It would be incorrect to use the divorce rules of the law – and the only correct solution would be simply to regard the marriage as non-existent, as it is the precondition of the law that marriages are entered into by persons of different sex. If a verdict exists in this case, the explanation can only be that a legal establishment has been wanted of the fact that the preconditions for this to be considered a marriage at all are lacking. -@Translator: MO

(16) In this country it has happened in several cases that persons have changed their sex. As far back as in 1820 there was a case where the king permitted that Johanne Katrine Nielsdatter of Hørby parish, after report from the health department, was considered a man, took the name of Johannes and was exempted from military service. – Later there has been for example a case from a local orphanage where it appeared that the matron in reality was a man – he later lived as a decent and honest person in this city.

(17) Often it has proven very difficult to determine if a child is a boy or a girl. In that case the procedure will be that an inquiry is made to the medico-legal council and if this can give a definite answer, the matter is settled of course. If there is doubt about the gender, you wait until the person concerned is about twenty years old – then it can usually be determined with certainty.

(18) If by then it is established that a married person perhaps belongs to another gender than the one in which the person concerned has been raised, a petition is presented to the ministry with the different pieces of evidence enclosed – and subsequently the person in question gets a royal licence stating that he or she is considered to belong to the other gender. At the same time, the person concerned gets a new name corresponding to his or her true gender.

(19) In cases where the gender cannot be established with certainty, today the thinking is entertained that the person concerned avoids possible social disadvantages, for example is exempted from military service. This professor Viggo Bentzon expresses in his family law in the way that the person concerned “cannot be a soldier but probably midwife”.

(20) There is no reason why the person who has changed his or her gender in this way should not enter a new marriage – the previous one has been declared nothing.